Martial artists often address their teachers as sensei. Junior and senior students are organized via a senpai/kōhai system. Various titles are also employed to refer to senior instructors. Which titles are used depends on the particular licensing organization.
Hanshi (範士 : はんし) refers to a senior expert considered a "teacher of teachers". This title is used by many different arts for the top few instructors of that style, and is sometimes translated "Grand Master".
Recently, during the 1st Karatedo Union of Singapore (KUS) Invitational Championships 2010, Shihan Chia was conferred to this title by the KUS. This is the first time in Singapore karatedo history, the title was conferred. Beside Shihan Chia, there were three other Shihans also conferred.